Let’s start with the history of the lead acid battery before getting into its concepts. Nicolas Gautherot, a French scientist, discovered in 1801 that there is still a very small amount of current flowing during electrolysis tests ,even when the main battery is disconnected.
The first lead acid battery that recharges by the passage of reverse current was created in 1859, by a scientist named Gatson. This was the first iteration of this type of battery, to which Faure later made numerous improvements. Henri Tudor finally created the useful lead acid battery in 1886. Let’s talk about this type in greater detail.
What is a Lead Acid Battery?
Rechargeable and secondary batteries fall within the category of lead acid batteries. The battery is capable of delivering higher surge currents despite having minimal energy to volume and weight proportions. This indicates that lead acid batteries have a high power to weight ratio.
These batteries transform chemical energy into electrical energy by using lead peroxide and sponge lead. Due to their higher cell voltage levels and low cost, these are mostly used in substations and power systems.
The plates and containers are the most important elements in the creation of a lead acid battery. Each part utilized in the construction is thoroughly described below.
To prevent any electrolyte discharge, the top of this container is made of ebonite, lead-coated wood, glass, ceramic materials, forged plastic, or hard rubber formed of bituminous substances. Four ribs are present in the bottom half of the container, two of which are attached to the positive plate and the others to the negative plate.
The prism serves as a basis for both plates in this instance and also protects them from short-circuiting. The materials used to build the container must not include any sulphuric acid, must not bend or be permeable, and must not have any pollutants that could harm the electrolyte.
In a lead acid battery, the plates are built differently, but they are all composed of the same kind of grid, which is formed of lead and active materials. The grid is essential for determining current conductivity and for distributing equal current quantities to the active components. The active component will become looser if the distribution is unequal. This battery has two different types of plates. Both of those are made of shaped and pasted plates.
The produced plates are heavy and expensive and are mostly used in static batteries. But even with constant charging and discharging processes, they have a long lifespan and are not easily prone to losing their active components. These are only partially capable.
An active component is one that actively participates in the chemical reaction processes that occur in the battery, primarily during charging and discharging. The parts that are active are:
- Lead peroxide is an active component that is positive.
- Lead sponge serves as the negative active component.
- Sulfuric acid that has been diluted is mostly used as an electrolyte.
These are thin sheets made of porous rubber, leadwood that has been coated, and glass fiber. To provide active insulation, the separators are positioned between the plates. On one side, they are grooved, and the other edges are smooth.
Its positive and negative margins are 17.5 mm and 16 mm in diameter, respectively.
Lead Acid Batteries – Working Principle
Because sulfuric acid serves as the battery’s electrolyte, when it dissolves, its molecules are distributed as SO4- (negative ions) and 2H+ (positive ions), which are free to move around. The positive ions will travel and move in the direction of the negative edge of the battery when these electrodes are submerged in the solutions and are supplied with a DC supply. The negative ions will also migrate in a similar manner, moving in the direction of the battery’s positive edge.
Each hydrogen ion and each sulfate ion gather one and two electrons as well as negative ions from the cathode and anode, respectively, and then they interact with water. Thus, hydrogen and sulfuric acid are produced.
When a voltmeter is attached in between the electrodes in the absence of a DC source, it shows the potential difference between the electrodes. The flow of current from the negative plate to the positive plate via an external circuit occurs when a wire is connected to the electrodes which will indicate that the cell has the ability to generate electricity.
Types of Lead Acid Batteries
The five main categories of lead acid battery types are described in more depth in the section below.
Flooded form: This form of engine igniting uses a traction-type battery and is the standard type. In the cell area, the electrolyte can travel freely. When the battery dries out, those using this type can add water to the cells because they can access each one.
The lead-acid battery known as the “sealed type” is merely a slight improvement over the “flooded type.” Although no one has access to each battery cell, the internal layout is essentially identical to that of a flooded type battery. There is enough of this type to represent the primary difference.
Lead acid batteries perform best at a temperature of 250C, or 770F. Longevity is shortened when the temperature spectrum widens. According to the rule, the battery’s half-life decreases with every 80C rise in temperature. While a valve-regulated battery operating at 250C has a 10-year lead-acid battery life. Additionally, it only has a 5-year life span when used at 330C.
Lead Acid Battery Applications
- These are used to power sump pumps during times of emergency lighting
- used with electric motors
- Atomic submarines
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